AAA Pest Control LLC

Pests

Pests

AAA Pest Control services any common pests from ants to deer.  There are many different kinds of pests and only some of these create health problems in Indigenous communities. Below are the different types of common pest in New Jersey.

Pests

Flies

Rubbish, food scraps, open septic tanks, open leach drains, under eaves, dirty benches and tables, lawn clippings and animal feces.

Cockroaches

Rubbish, food scraps, dirty benches and tables, drains, behind stoves and fridges, bathroom and kitchen cupboards, under floors of older houses, septic tanks and leach drains.

Mosquitoes

Cool, dark and damp places such as rain water in discarded refrigerators, car tyres and tins, and in septic tanks/leach drains, water storage tanks, protected corners of effluent ponds and natural bodies of water.

Fleas

Like sandy areas. They need blood to breed. They will also bite humans when there are no animals around. Many fleas are brought into houses on peoples clothes, having jumped onto them from outside their house. Fleas are also transported on bedding.

Fleas are usually found on animals like cats and dogs, so it is important that these animals are kept outside the house to reduce the likelihood of fleas infesting houses.

Mites

Live and breed on animals and people.

Rats and Mice

Rubbish, exposed food, storage places, kitchen cupboards and holes in walls. They are also found in pipes, insulation, under buildings, in ceilings and in trees and gardens.

Bed bugs

Are transported from place to place in or on a persons luggage or their bedding. They hide in cracks and crevices during the day where people sleep and will seek a blood meal by biting a person in their bed during the night.

Bed bugs also need a blood meal to mature into adults. Bites can be very itchy and if scratched can become infected.

Flies

There are many different kinds of flies. Three of which are common pests are shown below:
Fig. 5.2: Common types of flies.
Common types of flies.

Fly life cycle

Adult flies lay their eggs in moist organic material, for example, food scraps, animal feces (droppings), grass clippings or dead animals. After a few hours the eggs turn into larvae, called maggots.

The maggots feed on the organic material and grow quickly. After four or five days the maggots move to dry soil and burrow down into it and turn into pupae. A special hard protective covering called a pupal case encloses each of the pupae while they continue to develop. Pupae are brown to black in color and can sometimes be mistaken for mice droppings.

After four or five days, pupae turn into adult flies. They break out of the pupal case, burrow up through the soil to the surface and fly away.
Flies are able to travel many kilometers from their breeding place. However, if there are lots of flies around, it usually means there is a good breeding place nearby.
Fig. 5.3: Life cycle of the fly.
: Life cycle of the fly.

Flies and disease

When flies land on things like food scraps, manure, feces or dead animals they pick up disease-carrying germs and germs. The germs are carried on their hairy bodies and legs and in their stomachs.

When the flies land on things like food, cups, knives and plates, the germs can be passed on to these articles. If people then eat the food or use these articles when eating food, they will get the germs into their bodies and may become sick.

Flies feed by putting a special substance from its stomach onto the food through its long, hollow, tube-shaped mouth. This special type of mouth is called a proboscis. The special substance which comes from the fly’s stomach makes the food liquid and the fly then sucks this up through its proboscis.

Germs from the fly’s legs and body, and from the liquid that comes from its stomach, get onto the food while it is eating. Some of these germs will be left behind on the food after the fly has gone.

This is a list of the diseases caused by germs and parasites which come from flies.

Diseases in Indigenous communities caused by germs carried by flies

Bacterial diseases

  • salmonellosis
  • shigellosis
  • trachoma

Viral deases

  • hepatitis A

Fig. 5.4: How flies spread germs which cause such diseases as food poisoning and hepatitis A
How flies spread germs which cause such diseases as food poisoning and hepatitis A.

When people have cuts and sores on their bodies, disease-carrying flies can land on them and cause them to become infected.
Fig. 5.5: Flies spread germs which cause cuts and sores to become infected.
Flies spread germs which cause cuts and sores to become infected.

Bush flies can carry a germ which causes a serious eye disease called trachoma. These flies are attracted to the salt in the tears (moisture) from people’s eyes. As bush flies go from one person’s eyes to another, they can pass on this disease from one person to the next. The common house fly is also attracted to the moisture around people’s eyes. These flies can pass on germs which cause other kinds of eye infections, such as pus eyes.
Fig. 5.6: How flies spread germs which cause trachoma.
How flies spread germs which cause trachoma.

Cockroaches

There are many different types of cockroaches and most of them can spread disease and are pests. The three main types of cockroach in Australia are the German Cockroach, Australian Cockroach and the American Cockroach.

The German Cockroach is one of the smallest of the cockroaches and is probably the most commonly found species inside buildings. Adults are 12 to 15 mm long, have a light amber/brown color with two dark stripes on the head.
Fig. 5.7: The German Cockroach
The German Cockroach

German Cockroaches are mostly found in and around kitchens, pantries, storerooms and other food handling areas. They prefer to be near food, moisture and warmth. They do not fly.

The Australian Cockroach is larger (30 to 35 mm) and is able to fly. It is dark brown with clearly defined yellow markings on the head and the front wings. This cockroach prefers plant food and is usually found outdoors. For example, under the bark of trees and among woodpiles.

The American Cockroach is one of the largest of the cockroaches (30 to 45 mm). It is red brown in color with a pale yellow border around the head and it can fly. The American Cockroach prefers warm and moist conditions. It is a very widespread pest which lives in wall and roof cavities, sewers, drains, cellars, grease traps and rubbish dumps. It can be found around any food preparation area.
Fig. 5.8: Life cycle of the cockroach.
Life cycle of the cockroach.

Cockroaches and disease

Like flies, cockroaches can carry many disease-causing germs on and in their bodies. Because their natural homes include rubbish, dirt and filth they readily pick up germs from these areas. They then walk over food, cutlery, crockery and cooking equipment, benches, tables and other places in the home and pass the germs on to people.

Mosquitoes

The adult mosquito has a proboscis similar to a fly except that it has a needle-sharp end which is used for piercing the skin of a person or other animal to suck blood.

When mosquitoes pierce the skin to suck blood, this can result in the transmission of many serious diseases among humans and other animals. However, most mosquitoes do not carry disease-causing germs, but only annoy people with the itchy ‘bites’ they cause. If people scratch their mosquito bites this can break the skin and lead to secondary infections.
Fig. 5.9: The mosquito.
Fig. 5.10: Life cycle of the mosquito.
Life cycle of the mosquito.

Mosquitoes and disease

Before the female can lay her eggs, she must have a blood meal. She gets this blood by sticking her proboscis into the person or animal’s skin and sucking out the blood, often called a mosquito ‘bite’. The time when biting is most likely is at dawn and dusk.
Fig. 5.11: Mosquito piercing skin with its proboscis to suck blood.
Mosquito piercing skin with its proboscis to suck blood.

If a mosquito takes a blood meal from a person or animal that is infected with these virus germs then the virus will grow inside the mosquito. If it later bites another person or animal, it may pass on some of the virus germs, and that person or animal may catch the disease. This cycle can go on and on, infecting lots of people and animals and causing a disease outbreak with lots of sick people.

Many people all over the world have died as a result of diseases transmitted by mosquitoes.
Fig. 5.12: Mosquitoes carry disease.
Mosquitoes carry disease.
Diseases in Indigenous communities caused by germs and carried by mosquitoes

Rodents (rats and mice)

Rodents comprise a group of furred, warm blooded animals which include rats and mice. In America, there are a number of introduced (feral) rodents which are pests around homes, shops and warehouses. These are:

  • the ground rat (also called the Norway rat)
  • the roof rat (also called the climbing or black Rat)
  • the house mouse (also called the field mouse)

Fig. 5.14: Rodents show picture of a typical house mouse
Rodents show picture of a typical house mouse pests

Rats and mice differ in size, mice being much smaller than rats. Ground and Roof Rats are similar in size. However, they differ in some ways.
Fig. 5.15: Differences between Ground and Roof Rats.
Differences between Ground and Roof Rats.

Rodents and disease

Rats and mice may pass disease-causing germs to humans in several ways, such as:

  • carrying disease-causing germs from sewers, drains and rubbish tips to food, kitchen benches, storage areas and utensils
  • depositing infected urine or feces on food utensils
  • depositing infected urine or feces in places where people can come in contact with it
  • biting people
  • passing the germs to household pets, which then pass them on to humans.

In addition to being major pests because they spread disease, rats and mice also cause significant problems in other ways, for example:

  • they can destroy large amounts of stored grain in bulk stores and silos by contaminating it with their urine and feces
  • their habit of constantly gnawing (chewing) causes much damage to doors, skirting, upholstery, books, food and other packaging, wires, cables and pipes.

Bed bugs

Bed bugs are new but old pests.  They plagued the Earth as pests for thousands of years and were almost completely eradicated, but in the past 20 years have made a come back as common pests.  Bed bugs are small insects about 4-6mm in length. They are flat in shape and when they hatch are cream in color, turning reddish brown as they mature. When they have a blood meal they turn dark brown. There is no evidence to date that these insects transmit disease. They are often brought into a house by people who may have recently traveled interstate, overseas or visited relatives in a nearby town or community. Bed bugs attached themselves to luggage, bedding, furniture and so on. Then when any of these items are brought into a house, the insects run off and hide and wait for a person to bite. They often bite while a person is sleeping.

Bed bugs can quickly infest most areas of a house, particularly bedrooms and are difficult and very expensive to treat/eradicate. Often people have to throw away their mattresses and start again. Simply buying a new mattress will not get rid of bed bugs, as rooms have to be treated with insecticides and where possible steam or a combination of both.

The life cycle is as follows:

  • Eggs – clusters of three or more stuck together, they are white in color
  • Eggs hatch in 6-17 days and form nymphs, (nymphs shed their outer skin, 5 times)
  • Nymphs turn into adults after 5-12 weeks
  • Adults are very mobile as they are good walkers and can run